Permanent residency

La citoyenneté "glissante" est une bonne métaphore. Il évoque l'angoisse contemporaine que le statut légal échappe de plus en plus à la portée de ceux qui le veulent et en ont besoin: plus difficile à obtenir, plus facile à perdre, fonctionnellement ténue même lorsque formellement sécuriser. Naturellement, nous sommes plus préoccupés par la situation de ceux qui cherchent la citoyenneté - de jure ou de facto - à partir d'un Etat récalcitrant. Néanmoins, je veux explorer l'image miroir de la citoyenneté "glissante", que je vais appeler la "citoyenneté collante". L'étiquette s'applique à des situations où un État cherche à donner la citoyenneté sur à bénéficiaire réticent ou lorsqu'un individu est coincé avec une citoyenneté qu'il veut désavouer. Cette exploration préliminaire de la citoyenneté "collante" est limitée à la première situation.

Slippery citizenship is a great metaphor. It evokes the contemporary anxiety that legal status increasingly eludes the grasp of those who need and want it most desperately: harder to get, easier to lose, functionally tenuous even when formally secure. Understandably, we are most preoccupied with the predicament of those who seek citizenship - de jure or de facto - from a recalcitrant state. Nevertheless, I want to explore slippery citizenship's mirror image, which I will call "sticky citizenship". The label applies to situations where a states seeks to stick citizenship on an unwilling recipient or where an individual is stuck with a citizenship she wishes to disavow. This preliminary exploration of sticky citizenship is confined to the former. 

Ce document propose une perspective critique sur la façon dont contrôle de l'immigration régit la vie de la famille des résidents britanniques et des descendants d'immigrants. L'immigration familiale est problématique pour un gouvernement déterminé à limiter l'immigration à long terme aux travailleurs qualifiés.

This paper offers a critical perspective on how immigration control regulates the family lives of British residents and nationals of migrant descent. Family migration is problematic for a government determined to restrict long-term immigration to the skilled. The extended or ‘corporate’ family is particularly problematic because it also causes the reproduction of forms of family life that are regarded as oppressive and a barrier to cohesion. Policies have tended to minimise these forms of migration, and recent changes and proposals are consistent with that. The result is the increased marginalisation or exclusion of some migrants and pressure on migrant family life to conform more closely to majority norms.

While families all over the world enlist the help of family, friends, or paid day care for their children, the need to do so is especially strong for individual women (single or divorced) who work outside the home to earn a living. Women who migrate for work in another country, in search of better pay, may need to have children stay in the homes of others in the country of origin. That "good mothering" may take many forms was not initially recognized under Dutch immigration law. The approach in the Netherlands eventually brbought it into conflict with European human rights law and with the merging immigration law of the European Union (EU).

While families all over the world enlist the help of family, friends, or paid day care for their children, the need to do so is especially strong for individual women (single or divorced) who work outside the home to earn a living. Women who migrate for work in another country, in search of better pay, may need to have children stay in the homes of others in the country of origin. That "good mothering" may take many forms was not initially recognized under Dutch immigration law. The approach in the Netherlands eventually brbought it into conflict with European human rights law and with the merging immigration law of the European Union (EU).

Ce chapitre examine comment cette expérience pour devenir un citoyen est affectée par, et à son tour alimente, les inégalités de genre. Bien que les lois d'immigration et de naturalisation sont conformes aux principes formels d'égalité des genres, la loi et particulièrement les lois d'immigration ont des effets genrés. 

This chapter examines how this experience of becoming a citizen is affected by, and in turn further entrenches, gender inequality. Although the law of immigration and naturalization comports with principles of formal gender equality, the law especially the law of immigration, has gendered effects.

Cet article explore l'étendue et la manière dont la Cour européenne des droits de l'Homme prend en considération les intérêts des époux résidents (citoyens ou résidents permanents) dans les cas mobilisant l'article 8 de la Convention européenne des droits de l'Homme (droit à la vie de famille). Les trois principes moraux pour les politiques de réunification familiale de Caren sont utilisés comme outil d'analyse dans cette évaluation des premiers cas d'admission et d'expulsion de la Cour tout en explorant les notions sous-jacentes de genre et d'ethnicité.

This article looks at the extent and way in which the European Court of Human Rights takes the interests of insider spouses (citizens or permanent residents) into account in Article 8 ECHR cases (right to family life). It uses Caren's three moral principles for family reunification policies as an analysing tool for the evaluation of the Court's first admission and expulsion cases, and looks at the underlying notions of gender and ethnicity.

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