Managing citizenship, security, and rights : regulating marriage migration in Europe and North America.
This paper focuses on the livelihoods and entitlements of Third Country women in different welfare regimes, and who enter on their own for work and education, as family migrants or as asylum seekers and refugees. It primarily focuses on first generation migrants, that is those who were born in another country.
Immigration policies contribute to shaping the gendered nature of these flows. The intersection of genre with other social divisions such as nationality, education, and economic, social and cultural resources in conjunction with immigration policies also create a complex matrix of stratification. The gendered outcomes and stratified rights and access to settlement and citizenship are not necessarily overtly enunciated but result from the ways in which the criteria relating to different forms of immigration are applied.
Despite all researches done on international women migration in the last decades, most common theories took a long time accepting the utility - or even just the existence - of the concept of gender (Gabaccia, 1995, Kofman, 1999 , Willis et Yeoh, 2000). However, these integrative theories failed to properly deconstruct some dichotomies, having maintained what can be call a theoretical reductionism and having failed to articulate gender with other social relations of class and race.
Though almost inevitably represented negatively, international migration is not simply about the poor and the unskilled of the Third World and Eastern Europe knocking on the doors of the European Union. Increasing interconnections between the key nodes of the global economy (Japan, North America, and Europe) have also resulted in the international movement of highly skilled workers and their dependents between core areas.
This article argues that we could achieve a better understanding of the different modalities and trajectories of care in the reproduction of individuals, families, and communities, both of migrant and nonmigrant populations by articulating the diverse circuits of migration, in particular that of labor and the family.
These studies explore in more detail both the obstacles and their responses and strategies to entry into the labour market and deskilling and in specific sectors and states as well as in the European Union. The article also argues that how immigration regulations shape gendered skilled migrations is a topic which deserves more attention.
This paper explores the dichotomies and gendered invisibilities underpinning the concept of the knowledge economy and society through a closer examination of two emblematic and contrasting figures working in Information and Communication Technology and domestic/care work as bearers of different configurations of knowledge and skills in the contemporary circuits of globalisation.
The promotion of knowledge economies and societies, equated with the mobile subject as bearer of technological, managerial and cosmopolitan competences, on the one hand, and insecurities about social order and national identities, on the other, have in the past few years led to increasing polarisation between skilled migrants and those deemed to lack useful skills.
In this paper we argue that the migration of women into skilled sectors of the labour market, especially in health, alters our understanding of the role of migrant women in social reproduction. Migrant women are present in multiple sites and spheres of reproduction beyond the household and recognising the different ways in which they are incorporated into globalised labour markets challenges simplistic representations of migrant women and draws out a fuller appreciation of their contribution to social reproduction and welfare in the First World.
This article focuses on contemporary gendered politics of migration and belonging in Britain. The article starts with an examination of migration and the construction of boundaries in Europe and, more specifically, the gendered implications of recent immigration policies (labour, family, asylum) and the gendered nature of the notion of “secure borders” as well as that of “safe haven” in the UK White Paper.
I argue that we need to question the relegation of female migrants to the subordinate circuits of globalization and to extend our analysis beyond productive and reproductive labour in less skilled sectors. The inclusion of female skilled migrants can add a distinctive counter narrative, which includes care for and education of people, to our conceptualization of a knowledge economy and society, which tends to be based on scientific and technological sectors.
Despite being the dominant mode of legal entry for the past two decades in European Union states, the study of family migration has been marginalised theoretically, methodologically and empirically. In settler societies, family migration has been interpreted more loosely and has been encouraged. The definition of who constitutes the family is determined by the state and is generally interpreted in highly restrictive terms in EU states.
Since the late 1980s there has been a diversification of European migratory flows. States, which remain the key actors in migration policies despite growing European harmonisation, have responded to these complex patterns and contradictory pressures by diversifying migrant categories and statuses.
This working paper examines the factors that underlie the neglect of gender and the consequences of this neglect for our understanding of migration processes and outcomes.
This paper examines the position of Asian migrant women in the labour market in OECD countries, and in particular the European Union. The term Asian encompasses extremely heterogeneous migrations in a wide geographical area stretching from East Asia, South East Asia to the Indian sub-continent.