" Human mobility has been an inherent human condition throughout the history of humanity. From earliest human history, people have migrated in search of a better life, to populate other places on the planet, or to escape and survive human-made or natural dangers. Although human mobility has been a constant throughout all periods of human history, it was the creation of the nation-state –which can be traced to the Treaties of Westphalia of 1648- that introduced the phenomenon now known as international migration. The reorganization of the international community into a set of territorial states with established geographic boundaries enabled states to exercise authority over persons who settled within their borders and those attempting to cross them [...]". 

This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls.

Danish Institute for international studies - When migrants die in attempts to reach Europe, one response is to launch information campaigns about the risks involved in irregular migration. However, information campaigns seldom stem migration, primarily because they are based on two wrong assumptions: First, that aspiring migrants are ignorant about the risks involved, and, second, that the root causes of exploitative migration rest with human smugglers and traffickers. 

The Home Office is proposing a massive 25% increase in already high immigration application fees for families for the year 2016-17. Family and spouse visas will in future cost £1,195. The maximum chargable for these applications will be increased from £2,141 to £3,250. The fee for a settlement application will increase to £1,875 and to £2,676 for Adult Dependant Relatives.

British citizen naturalisation fees for adults will increase to £1,156 and child registration fees to £936, which also represent 25% increases.

By comparison, a large multinational company applying for a Tier 2 sponsor licence to enable it to recruit foreign workers needs to pay a fee of £1,476. This fee is not being increased.


More than half of the nation’s governors say they will not accept Syrian refugees in their states, but they may have little choice. States cannot pick and choose which refugees to take in, federal officials with the Health and Human Services Department’s Office of Refugee Resettlement warned in a letter sent out last week. If they deny services to any group of refugees, states may risk losing resettlement funding altogether.

Ecuador announced Thursday that it will begin requiring Cubans to get entry visas beginning Tuesday, seeking to discourage the flow of migrants. Deputy Foreign Minister Xavier Lasso said Ecuador wants to curb the flow of migrants who have been using Ecuador as a transit country to reach other nations

Fermer les frontières aux réfugiés syriens à la suite des attentats de Paris « n’est pas une solution », car cela augmenterait la pression sur les pays voisins de la Syrie déjà débordés, a souligné mardi le patron de l’UNICEF (Fonds des Nations unies pour l’enfance).

Le Congrès américain, à majorité républicaine, se préparait mercredi à légiférer pour durcir les conditions d’admission de réfugiés en provenance de Syrie et d’Irak et des élus appelaient aussi à une réévaluation du programme d’exemption de visas pour les touristes européens.

Environ un million de Mexicains ont quitté les États-Unis entre 2009 et 2014 pour rentrer dans leur pays, tandis que quelque 870 000 ont fait le chemin en sens inverse sur la même période, selon une étude du Pew Research Center publiée jeudi. L’institut américain de recherche avait déjà détecté une tendance similaire entre 2005 et 2010 : les Mexicains rentrés chez eux avaient été légèrement plus nombreux — 20 000 personnes — que ceux venus tenter leur chance aux États-Unis.

Des pays des Balkans filtrent les migrants par nationalité, interdisant à ceux venant de pays où il n’y a pas de conflit de poursuivre leur route vers l’Europe occidentale, ce qui provoque une file d’attente de centaines de migrants à la frontière gréco-macédonienne.


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